Water Treatment Concepts

Increasing the quality water involves disinfection plus purification of untreated surface and ground water.

Community Level. A public/private water treatment facility aims to generate water safe to consume and pleasant to taste, while ensuring that there's enough water to produce the needs of the community.

Raw, untreated water emanates from an underground aquifer (via wells) or surface ponds as being a river or lake. It flows or perhaps is pumped to a rehab facility. As soon as it's there, water is treated beforehand to take away debris - like leaves and silt. Then it goes thru a few treatment processes, including disinfection and filtration using chemicals or physical processes, eliminating microorganisms that induce diseases. As soon as the treatment is completed, water flows out via a system of pumps and pipes, that is referred to as distribution system.


You will find there's slight difference of water course of treatment at various places, based on the technology in the plant and water needed to be processed, though the fundamental principles are generally the identical.

Coagulation / Flocculation. With the coagulation state, liquid aluminium sulfate or alum, and at times polymer, is put in untreated/raw water. This mixture causes tiny dirt particles in water to get fastened together or coagulated. Then, collections of dirt particles join together to make bigger, heavier particles Known as flocs - which can be easily removed through filtration/settling.

Sedimentation. When water and floc particles feel the treatment process, they flow into sedimentation basins where water moves slowly, letting heavy floc particles dip for the bottom. Floc collected around the lowermost part of the basin is known as sludge. This holds through pipes to reach the drying lagoons. The sedimentation state is just not contained in Direct Filtration therefore, the floc is removed through filtration.

Filtration. Water goes thru a filter meant to remove water particles. The filters contain layers of gravel and sand, along with other cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration gathers the suspended water impurities and raises the efficacy of disinfection. The filters are cleaned often by using backwashing.

Disinfection. Before water retreats into the distribution system, it is disinfected to make certain that bacteria that creates diseases, parasites and viruses is eliminated. Chlorine can be used since it a great in disinfecting and maintaining residual concentration to shield from possible biological contamination contained in it water distribution.

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